Thursday, December 18, 2014


This is a paper which is going to discuss whether or not the journalist serves the public interest. The work will look at what authors are saying about the ideal situation and what is actually happening.

According Brian McNair, there are two paradigms which explain the role of the media.  In the competitive paradigm, which looks at the ideal situation, he said, “within it... the journalist is depicted as the servant of the public interest” (McNair, 1998:21). Journalism should represent the interest of the people but in the dominance paradigm where there are inequalities, it becomes difficult to say that the media is interested in serving the public. Fengler and Rub-Mohl (2008) found ‘the increasing commercialization of journalism has been sharply criticized by scholars of mass communication and observers of the media business alike’ (p.667). Ideally the Journalist must serve the public interest but in reality the journalist has not served the public interest well.

Journalism which “is often seen as a way of informing society about itself, in all society’s diversity” (Franklin, 2005: 129), has so many definitions but McNair (1988) sees it as “any authored text, in written, audio or visual form, which claims to be a truthful statement about, or record of, some hitherto unknown (new) feature of the actual, social world” (p.4). A journalist is that individual who is engaged in the activity of gathering, processing and dissemination of the information. According Organisation of New Ombudsmen, the Press Complaints Commission Code defines the public interest as including but not confined to detecting and exposing crime or serious impropriety ... and preventing the public from being misled by an action or statement of an individual, or organization.  It also said that there is public interest in freedom of expression in itself.

Chomsky and Herman (1988) acknowledged “the mass media serve as a system for communicating messages and symbols to the general populace” (p.1). The primary purpose of journalism is to provide citizens with the information they need to be free and self-governing (Kovach & Rosenstiel, 2007:12).  They also said “The news media serve as a watchdog, push people beyond complacency and offer a voice to the forgotten (ibid).  This is the ideal situation but is it not like that in the real situation. Henry H. Schulte said, ‘holders of political office have always tried to put reporters in their pockets’ (1981: vii). They are the powerful and the journalist makes the society hear them and their ideologies more that the voice of the forgotten.  As McNair (1998) puts it, ‘Journalism in this model serves not in the public ... but the dominant, private, selfish interests of a society stratified...” (p.22). In Ghana, most media houses talk more for the politician than to check them. Again there are people in the rural areas whose voices have been forgotten and most journalists too neglect them. They are concerned about the powerful and always spreading their ideology. If journalists are good at their job, they hold government and institution to account.  This is what real Journalists do. They scrutinize the executives shine light on dark places and dig where others do not - all in the public interest.

Brain McNair’s definition mentioned that the journalistic product must be truthful so that the media win the trust of the public (1998:5). Kovach & Rosenstiel (2007) agrees “Journalism’s first obligation is to truth” (p.36), and ‘everyone agrees journalists must tell the truth ... (ibid).  The point of verifying or confirming material is to try to guarantee its truth for the reader or listener’ (Mencher, 1996:94) and “most reporters understand that they should seek out truthful material” (ibid: 40) so that the public will trust them. The Journalist must be truthful but in the ideal situation where there is competition, inequalities and exploitation, they are ready to tell lies to impress the powerful in the society and also to put money into their pockets. This is not in the public interest. The Journalist is no more serving the public interest but the powerful. This is not serving the public interest. 

Ideally, Brian McNair stated that, journalism has to give a platform that gives equal competition to all social groups.  The journalist has to create a platform for people to discuss political and ideological issues. ‘The press provides the forum in which all sorts of ideas are presented; it becomes a marketplace of ideas’ (Ferguson & Patten, 1993:29). People will have to share their ideas and it will be in the interest of the public but according to William Melody, as a result of economic conditions or circumstances, access to the marketplace of ideas is restricted to a privilege few (melody, 1978, as cited in the Meier, 2000: 298). As citizens of the world we should have the right to access most diverse opinions and the accurate truthful information but with the concentration of media ownership, this information is heavily regulated and biased which decrease its investigative nature.  The information we receive is adversely influenced by the interests of media organisations which provides it. If the media become overly concentrated it allow abuses of power, lack of diversity of opinion, conflicting interests and suppression of journalistic freedom. The consequence of this is a poorly unformed public and this definitely cannot be in the public interest.

There are some very good media houses and journalists out there doing a wonderful job for the society but a lot them are serving the interest of the powerful, owners, advertisers and themselves. A whole generation of journalists has now grown up never knowing or experiencing the creative ability to report in the public interest.

(RADIO XYZ, 93.1fm)


Fengler, S. & Rub-Mohl, S. (2008). Journalists and the Information-Attention Market: Towards an Economic Theory of Journalism. London: SAGE Publications

Ferguson, D. L. & Patten, J. (1993). Journalism Today. Lincolnwood, Illinois: NTC Publishing Group.

Franklin, B., Hamer, M., Hanna, M., Kinsey, M. & Richardson, J.E.R. (2005). Key Concepts in Journalism Studies. London: SAGE Publications.

Herman, E.S. & Chomsky, N. (1988). Manufacturing of Consent: The Political Economy of the Mass Media. New York: Pantheon Books.

Kovach, B. & Rosenstiel, T. (2007). The Elements of Journalism: What Newspeople Should Know and the Public Should Expect. New York: Three Rivers Press.

McNair, B. (1998). The Sociology of Journalism. New York: Oxford University Press Inc.

Meier, W. A. (2000). Media Ownership – Does it Matter? Meier cited Bagdikian, retrieved from on 28th October, 2014.

Mencher, M. (1996). Basic Media Writing. Madison: Brown & Benchmark Publishers.
Organisation of News Ombudsmen (ONO).  (2012). How Should we Define ‘in the Public Interest’? Document retrieved from /columns ... on 29th October, 2014 at 2am.

Schulte, H. H. (1981). Reporting Public Affairs. New York: MacMillan Publishing Co. Inc.

Wednesday, September 17, 2014


Parliamentary reporting should not be limited to straight news writing in this age and time of freedom of the press, freedom of expression and the right of the people to have access to information. The media is the fourth (4th) estate of the realm and if it has to do effectively by policing the other estates, then parliamentary reporting should not be limited to straight news writing. It has to go beyond just reporting straight news on parliament. Journalism, which is the activity of gathering information, packaging, processing and turning it into news, goes beyond straight news writing. It sometimes involves investigations and coming out with findings in a feature form. Journalism which includes reporting is an institution that has been established by the society to play a specific role. As much as the society the society needs news or information, society also expects the media or journalists to go beyond mere reporting of the facts and give them something more if they (the media) have to perform its watch dog function. Parliamentary reporting should go beyond straight news reporting but one may ask how are they going to do that? This paper spells it out in the subsequent pages.

According to the Cambridge International Dictionary of English, news is “information or reports about recent events…”. News is also a material that people must have because it is important. It is any new information that interests and affects people. News can also be seen as something that has just occurred or about to happen as well as something that the public has the right to know, need to know and an interest to know. News is very important to the society and society needs news to survive. Straight news therefore “is a plain account of news facts written in standard style, and structure ( It is also seen as “a straight forward account of factual news with little or no comment or analysis ( Straight news is news that consists of facts given straight without embellishment. Its main aim is to inform. It uses the summary lead and is written using the inverted pyramid structure. A straight news story is a timely report on an event, usually written within 24hours after the event has taken place. It deals with the facts alone and the writer does not have to add his or her opinion. One just has to write what happened without adding what he or she thinks but feature writing gives that flexibility.

Oxford English Dictionary simply sees parliament as “an assembly that makes a country’s law. Parliament is a group of elected politicians or other people who make the laws for their country. It is a legislative body. It is an assembly of representatives, usually of an entire nation, that makes laws”. ( Parliament is a legislature whose power and function are similar to those dictated by the Westminster system of the United Kingdom. More generally, parliament may simply refer to a democratic government’s legislature. The term came from the French parlement, the action of parler(to speak); a parliament is a discussion. The term came to mean a meeting at which such a discussion took place. It acquired its modern meaning as it came to be used for the body of people (in an institutional sense) who would meet to discuss matters of state. Generally, a parliament has three (3) functions: representation, legislation and parliamentary control (that is hearings, inquiries). Reporting, on the other hand is giving a description of (something) or information about it to someone. Reporting is also giving a vivid account of an event or happenings. A report is a textual work (usually of writing, speech, television, or film) made with a specific intention of relaying information or recounting certain events in a wider presentable form. According to Derrick Schneider, ‘Reporting is just a genre of writing, alongside essays and stories, and bloggers most certainly fall into that genre.’  Parliamentary reporting should go beyond just straight forward news writing in this time of right to information because there is a lot that can be got from parliament than just a straight news. Parliament, the law making body of liberal democracies is about debate and arguments in which political parties, usually of opposing views, seek points of convergence or attempt to convince others about the soundness and benefits to be derived from their motion for the general good. The mass media play a very important role in parliamentary life as they are a factor and sometimes key determinants in the formation of opinion and matters of public interest.

The 1992 Constitution of the Republic of Ghana spells out freedom of the press and of expression. This has given power to the media to report on all aspects of social and political life including parliament. This freedom of the media helps the media in exposing weaknesses and lapses of the democratic system, creating opportunities for correction. There by performing their watch dog role as the police of the society. According to the World Bank Institute, freedom of the press should not be regarded simply as the freedom of journalists, editors or proprietors alone to report and comment but should be regarded as the embodiment of the public’s right to know and to participate in the free flow of information. This is to say that the public has the right to know about the happenings in parliament because they (the public) selected the parliamentarians by voting for them to go to parliament and go to make laws and policies for them. These laws and public policies will affect the people so they have to know what is going on in parliament and it is the media that can keep the people informed. From the idea that, there are debates in parliament based on the needs and grievances of the people that are made known by the media and that need of media to tell the people what goes on in parliament tells us that, they (parliament and media) need each other. This reciprocity in the functions of the two institutions only explains to what degree the relationship between parliament and media ought to be one of understanding, mutual respect and tolerance. Ideally, this is what should happen but in practice, though a serious business of state, sometimes turn up great moments of drama for one reason or another.

Parliamentary reporting is the most boring aspect of reporting. It is about the same thing that goes on there. The parliamentary reporter more often than not is always reporting on parliamentary proceeding; the debates and counter debates that go on there; the laws they come out with, to mention a just few. What is more frustrating and boring are the restrictions as to what you can report and what you can not report. For example, you can report on the House as a whole but not on select committees. But I think parliamentary reporting should go beyond just the straight news if really, the media is the fourth estate of the realm and it has to let the public have information. Information to the public on parliament should not be limited. On on the contrary, doing Parliamentary reporting, there are a lot of restrictions as to what not to do. For example, criticising Parliament is not done or you would have committed contempt of Parliament. In doing the watch man’s job, being critical of the legislature is part of the media’s responsibility while maintaining a healthy relationship with parliament and this cannot be done in straight news which will only give you the room to report on the facts or proceedings in Parliament. For instance, if Parliament does something which goes contrary to what they stand for, I think the reporter should be in a position to criticize it by checking it to let it know that what it is doing is not good. This can be done beyond straight news writing.

Parliamentary reporting should not be limited to straight news writing other than that, the media would not be able to do its work effectively. The public has the right to know about parliament, what goes on there, and how the people they (the public) elected into parliament to go make laws are behaving and faring. If Parliament passes a law and it is supposed to cover all of us but some members are not abiding by it, I think the media must be able to report on it. This definitely can not come in a form of straight news.

According to a report, Parliament and the Media: Securing an Effective Relationship, the media or journalists has to develop more imaginative and attractive ways to enhance parliamentary coverage so that the people are encouraged to take greater interest in their society’s principal democratic form. If this is to be realized, then parliamentary reporting will have to go beyond straight news writing. Straight news writing is the same way of writing and presenting the facts or reporting on the facts but if coverage should be made imaginative and attractive then we are definitely looking beyond that. Straight news writing can be boring since it is always the same way of writing to present the facts all the time and does not give room to opinions. This is another reason why I will say that Parliamentary reporting should not be limited to straight news writing.

Some may argue that because Parliament deals with Parliamentarians and their arguments and counter arguments, one should avoid the inclusion of personal views and opinions in the story as they can interfere with the audience’s interpretation and understanding of a debate, particularly one that a political controversy. But there is more that a reporter can get to the public than just reporting on the proceedings. For instances if there was a debate and the minority does not agree with the majority, the reporter can go beyond just straight news reporting and do research and investigations to find out why one group does not agree. The answers that you gather can be used to write more stories to inform the public than just reporting on the Parliamentary proceedings.

Members of Parliament are elected to the house by the public. They are sent there to make laws and bring decisions that will help govern the people in the society. If for instance, a member is abusing his or her office as a Member of Parliament, the media should be in the position to let the people know that the one you elected into office is not behaving well in office. The reporter can conduct investigations and get evidence to support his story and then he will come out with the story and the evidence. This exercise can not be done through mere straight news reporting. One has to go beyond the straight news reporting of Parliamentary proceedings and write features which can allow the reporter that flexibility of expressing his opinion by may be stating what a Member of Parliament should do and also state the way he or she is behaving now. This can even give the public the opportunity to look at the situation and be informed on whether to keep him or her there or to change that person in the next voting.

The media being the fourth estate of the realm should have the power of crticising to check on the society which also includes politics and Parliament. Parliament has the power to impose order within the House through such means as contempt of Parliament. Due to this, the media has to abide by all the rules of the House and know the relevant terminologies and right titles of Members. However, an arbitrary use of this power of Parliament could have serious consequences on Parliamentary reporting, especially when legislators use it to prevent criticism or bad press from reporters and their media houses. If care is not taken some the Members will hide behind this and do things that they are not expected to do due to their office. The media should be allowed to criticize the bad or negative things that the Members will do to drag the name of the House into disrepute. If this can be done and done so well by the media, the parliamentary reporting should be allowed to go beyond straight news writing. This is because straight news writing will not give you that luxury to go behind the news and fish for more to be given to the public.

The public has the right to information and they also have the right to know what is going on. The media is the institution that can let the public know and even let the Parliamentarians know what the public is saying so it can help them do their debate. They should be given the opportunity to go beyond straight news reporting on proceedings but keeping in mid the restrictions that is there. The reporter should be able to go beyond straight news writing and do research and investigations to write further. Due to these and many other more reasons, I still say that Parliamentary reporting should not be limited to straight news reporting.

Desmond Lamptey
Student Journalist studying MA in Journalism
At The Ghana Institute of Journalism


On air person at Radio XYZ, 93.1fm


Tuesday, December 3, 2013


From the time I was a little boy, my mum always wore red lipstick and had her nails and toenails painted red. I thought this was just the most beautiful thing in the world. I always think of her when I see a tube in the store. The mystery of the red lipstick has subsided in this new age where everyone is wearing the infamous Ruby Woo lipstick by MAC, and the funny thing is, it seems to fit everyone! Red is classy, bold and so sophisticated, but it must be worn right to pull it off.

Ladies, follow these steps so people won’t tell you it isn’t your best colour. That will be embarrassing! Don’t wear red lipstick the wrong way by following my simple rules.

1. Know What Shade Is Right for You

Here’s the thing about choosing a good red lipstick: there are many color shades suited for various skin types. You’ll need to try on many before you find one that works for you. They come in a variety of shades, such as orange shades of red, pink shades of red, and even cool bluish-reds. A safe and general rule is that women with fair skin should lean toward true reds with no orangey tones, while medium-skinned women look best in pinkish or orangey reds. Dark-skinned women should go for darker shades and even sport purple and wine-colored shades of red. This may take some trial and error to find what works for you, so be patient! Finding a good lipstick shade can take years, but don’t just go for the infamous red light red and expect to pull it off the first time. With all the many shades out there, it might not hurt to go to a makeup counter and have a specialist make recommendations.

2. Bring Back The Lip liner

Many people think lip liner is outdated, but when it comes to red lipstick, it is your best friend! The great thing about using lip liner with red lipstick is that you won’t see it like you will when wearing other shades, if you make sure to match up the lip liner to your lipstick correctly. The point of using lip liner with red lipstick is so it locks the lipstick on your lips. There’s nothing worse than finding you had smudged red lipstick on the outside of your mouth after a date! Or, worse, finding it above or below your lips. We don’t want you looking like Bozo the Clown, sweetie!

 3. Choose Your Outfit Accordingly

When choosing to wear red lipstick, you’ll have to base the entire rest of your outfit around it. Red is bold, striking, and can be brilliant if worn the right way. Yet, when it isn’t, it can be tacky, trashy and tragic! We want you to look your best, so wear red lipstick with a complementary outfit. Red looks great with solid black, such as little black dresses or a suit, and it also looks great with most evening gowns, and jeans with a leather bomber jacket for a more fashionable twist. It also pairs well with simple ballet flats, a brown or black outfit, and with a leopard accent such as a scarf. Just don’t overdo animal print with red lipstick; that’s a big no-no! Also, if you’re wearing sweats, leave the red lipstick at home and put on a gloss to keep things simple.

4. Don’t Let It Migrate to Your Teeth

Red lipstick is so bright and noticeable, that you can bet if it gets on your teeth, people will notice you, though not in the way you were hoping. To prevent this, be sure to blot your lips, and try an old trick well known to women everywhere. Insert a clean finger into your mouth, close your lips around it, then pull the finger out. You’ll get rid of the excess lipstick found on the inside of your lips this way. Just be sure to wash your hands after.

5. Make Sure Your Teeth Are Pretty And White

It can’t hurt to whiten your teeth regularly if you’re wearing red lipstick. Red lipstick does not look good on yellow-stained teeth from coffee, tea, or other dark beverages or tobacco. Ever seen a flashy white smile with red lipstick? It’s gorgeously bold and alluring, while also still looking clean and ladylike. If you’re going to wear red, wear it right and keep your teeth white!

6. Put Away The Pink

Whatever you do, don’t wear anything pink with red lipstick. This is a huge fashion no-no, and a red lipstick nightmare. This is a terrible clash of colors and will take away from the simple bold effects red can offer and seem overstated and nasty instead.

7. Tone The Rest down

When wearing red lipstick, be sure to tone the rest of your makeup down by using subtler, skin-friendly shades. For example, red lipstick pairs well with light brown eyeshadows better than dark black eyeshadows, or purples. Don’t wear rosy red blush with red lipstick, but go with a softer blush shade. Also be sure to get a clean, pressed powder to keep your skin looking soft and polished. Make sure you don’t overstate your eyeliner and embrace a good mascara!

If you wear red lipstick, let me hear from you, your experience.

Tuesday, October 1, 2013


Radio has been the preferred mass medium of communication in Africa and other parts of the world. For a long time to come, radio will remain to be the favoured mass medium of communication. In the age of an abundance of media it might come as a surprise to some that he oldest means of mass broadcasting – radio – is not only holding its own but managing to increase its audience (Fleming, 2002, p.5). Radio is endlessly adaptable. Even though there are challenges from other media, radio continue to be popular because of its ability to adapt to changes including technological advance and changes in the world. Stephen Bernard (2002) notes, “radio’s ability to survive in a competitive media environment has always depended on how well broadcasters tap into social, cultural and technological changes” (p.17). It is a fact that improvement in technology has made radio broadcasting simpler. This is to say that, getting items to air using digital technology is quicker than the old analogue system and the sound quality is better, but the advancement in the quest for technology cannot question the transiency of radio. Radio is transient and no matter the age within which we find ourselves, radio’s messages are fleeting.

Mass media, including radio performs the basic function of educating, informing and entertaining. Radio has its form and nature and that its characteristics. Among the characteristics of radio are radio has speed and it is simple, radio makes pictures, radio is person-to-person, radio is cheap, radio is transient or a one chance medium, radio is selective, radio lack space and radio has music. Some people think that due to the coming on of technology the transient character of radio is no more, but that is not true. In the midst of technology the transiency of radio cannot be questioned.

Radio is the process of sending and receiving messages by electromagnetic waves, a transmitter or a receiver is used for his sound broadcasting. According to Ul Hassan (2010), radio is a technology that transmits data to a remote point where a receiver detects that signal with the use of wire. Radio comes through the process of radiation. Radio broadcasting is a wireless transmission over radio waves intended to reach a wide audience. Audio broadcasting can be done through cable radio, local wire television networks, satellite radio and internet radio through streaming media on the internet which is supported by technology. Technology is the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes. It is also seen as the application of science to meet an objective or solve a problem. Technology has affected every aspect of life including radio but cannot stop the transiency of radio.

The transiency of radio is the fact radio messages are “irredeemable”. This is to say that, they are “irrepeatable” in the sense that once transmitted, the message is gone, unless otherwise, a repeat broadcast is scheduled. Even then, the message is so quickly changing fast that the listener is unable to re-play the message the same time it is broadcast. Radio is said to be a one chance medium. The listener has only one chance to listen and understand and technology has not changed it in any way. On radio, what is being said does not exist any longer unless you record it and even that when it is being played again, it is fleeting because it is passing quickly and if you miss something and you want to go back, to have to go through the problem of stopping it, rewinding it and playing it again. Advancement in and the quest for technology, has not touch the transient nature of radio. The words on radio have a momentary life. After it is spoken, it disappears unlike newspaper or printed books that you can always refer to.

Technology has brought a lot of changes to radio but it cannot question the transient nature of radio. Radio is still transient and the messages are fleeting. Technology, without a doubt has brought so many good things to radio and even made working on radio easy. Technologies such as, multi-track and digital recording enhances this aural medium potential (Hilliard, 2008). There are some computer programmes like Podcast, Hulkshare, Sound Cloud, YouTube, just to mention a few of them, that are used to record radio programmes and played back later. For example, a podcast is a type of digital media of an episodic series of audio radio, video, PDF or ePud files subscribed to and downloaded through the web syndication or stream online to a computer device. Some radio stations and presenters rely on these technologies to record their programmes and put them on their websites or on social media networks like Facebook, Twitter, Flicker, and so on, to be played later. It is believed that for instance if you miss the live show, you have a chance of listening to it again so its takes away radios transiency but I personally do not think so. Even when you log on which ever network and you decide to play the programme back, the messages are still fleeting and they pass quickly and go and you will only have to rewind it to get the part you did not get well. British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) and some other big media houses do podcasting to cater for people who missed the shows live but it does not question the transient nature of radio.

Kojo Ampofo who is popularly known as DJ Black on Joy fm records all his on air programmes and podcast them to be listened to later but if one goes to the podcast plays it, it is still fleeting just like live radio. The only thing here is that you can pause it, stop it, rewind it, play it but does not change the fact that radio is transient.

I would want to emphasis that, with the coming of technology which has brought a lot of blessing than curses to radio, radio remain to be a transient medium.


Bernard, S. (2000). Studying Radio. London : Arnold
Fleming, C. (2002). The Radio Handbook. London and New Year : Routledge Taylor and Francis Group.
Hilliard, R.L. (2008). Writing for Television, Radio New Media. USA : Thomson Wadsworth Boston.

Ul Hassan, T.A. (2011).  Brief History of Radio 

Wednesday, June 26, 2013


Radio is used to educate, to inform and to entertain. As part of its entertainment functions, radio plays music. Radio has a rich array of music and the range of music radio provides is unprecedented. Radio is said to have music because radio has a huge library of music more than any music library in the world. With the coming of technology, one would have thought that, radio’s position when it comes to music will be taken over by the internet or other technological platforms but radio still has the most incredible range of music. Technology has rather made storage of music easier for radio and it continues to give out more different genres of music because radio stations can be found in almost all parts of the world. Radio is constantly changing and “throughout the last century, it  has adapted to cultural and technological change to remain a popular and distinctive medium despite the growth of television, cinema, cable and satellite service … and even the internet” (Fleming, 2002, pg1)
Radio is a technology that transmits data to a remote point where a receiver detects the signal with the use of wire (UL Hassan, 2010). Radio is also the transmission and reception of electromagnetic waves of radio frequency, especially those carrying “sound” messages. It is derived from radiation which is a principle that governs radio waves. Technology is a body of knowledge used to create tools, develop skills and extract or collect materials. Technology is also seen as the application of science to meet an objective or solve the problem. Technology has helped radio to improve on the way it stores music, thereby helping radio to give more different types of genres of music. Radio has got music and no other media or platform can change that.
Oxford English Dictionary sees music as a vocal or instrumental sounds combined to produce beauty and express emotions; the art of this is, the written signs representing this; something very pleasing to or welcome to the ear (p. 336). Music is a pattern of sounds made by musical instruments or singing or a combination of both, intended to give pleasure to people listening to it.
Hilliard (2008) stated that Radio, in the past and now is also music and talk. He mentioned that although talk and other non-music specialized format have recently increased on radio programming today is still principally music (ibid, pg. 302). According to Fleming (2002), most radio stations in the world are music based, and the style of each station is a crucial aspect of the station’s identity. Radio stations all over the world use music and the music they play are seen as a key component of its audience’s identity. Radio disc jockeys (DJ) use music to do their work on air. They bring a very rich array of music to the listener thereby increasing the music library of radio.
Now radio stations store their music on hard disk that is accessed either by a fader system or keyboard. In these times of technological advancement, radio can store more music. Hard disk can take a very large number of songs that makes the work of the DJ easy. Can you just imagine the number of radio stations around the world with hard disks to store music? It will be countless; multiplied by the number of songs each of the hard disks can take. Technology has rather come to reinforce the fact that radio has music and that it has an incredible and unlimited range of music.
Technological advancement has really helped radio musical library in a very positive way. Indeed radio’s said to have music and technology has been a blessing rather than a curse to radio. Unlike in time past, that, people used live instruments to produce music which also take a lot of time, now by the help of technology music is produced in a relatively short time. Technology has helped a lot of musicians and producers to release songs easily and in short time. Now a lot of songs being produced involve technology and it makes making music easier. As radio play these songs, it increases it library and this goes on all round the world. While people produce more Highlife, Hiplife, Agbadza and other local type of music, some other people somewhere also produce more  Jazz, Blues, Soul, Zouk, Ndombolo, Calypso, just to mention a few. These and many more are all played on the radio in different parts of the world. Radio has music that is unlimited. Radio plays every type of music and the range of music that radio gives is unprecedented to any found record in any record library in the world. Technology has played a very important role in this.
The genres of music on radio are varied. Now with the help of technology, we can listen to music from all over the world through internet radios. There are a lot of radio stations all over the world and now with technology, most of them are online. There are some radio stations specifically established for the internet. For example once you have access to the internet, you can use TuneIn, an audio computer programme which can be use to receive radio signals of radio stations all over the world; provided it is on the internet. This gives people all over the world to get access to different genres of music that radio has stored. Technology has come to help radio increase its musical library. Now with technology, I can be here in Ghana and listen to an Indian music from a radio station in India.
Radio has music and the technology advancement has really been a blessing to radio. Technology has really helped increase the music library of radio.  Technology brought internet radio and it has given us access to an incredible and unlimited range of music provided by radio. Technology has really reinforced that fact that radio has music and it is insatiable, inexhaustible and infinitiable.

 Desmond Lamptey
On-air person
Radio XYZ, 93.1fm

Fleming, C. (2002). The Radio Handbook. London and New Year : Routledge Taylor and Francis Group.
Hilliard, R.L. (2008). Writing for Television, Radio New Media. USA : Thomson Wadsworth Boston.
Ul Hassan, T.A. (2011).  Brief History of Radio 1.htm

Aaron Tippin Ready to Fly Classic Plane: Boeing B-29 Superfortress is last operational craft of its kind.

Aaron Tippin, an accomplished pilot as well as country singer/songwriter, will be at the controls of a classic airplane when he flies into the Smyrna (Tenn.) Airport, outside Nashville, July 2. Airman Aaron will fly copilot aboard the Commemorative Air Force's famous Boeing B-29 Superfortress bomber, the only remaining flying example of the aircraft in the world. Aaron is a Commemorative Air Force member and also serves as a spokesperson for the organization.
The event is open to the public and will allow attendees to get up close with a variety of famous military aircraft. Cockpit tours of the B-29 are also available. The Boeing B-29 Superfortress is best known as the aircraft that helped bring about the end of World War II with its missions over Japan.
Aaron is a commercial, instrument-rated pilot and is also qualified to pilot a helicopter. On the musical side, he is currently part of a joint effort with fellow stars Joe Diffie and Sammy Kershaw on the album All in the Same Boat.

Sunday, February 10, 2013


To deny the fact that Information and Communications Technology is not only important but crucial in Mass Communication is an understatement. In this post- modern world today, to live without knowledge of ICT is like having a pen in your hand without knowing what to do with it. Our world has become a global village without necessarily destroying our various cultures. Like the Radio and Television before it, the Computer has eventually become a home appliance that many people look at as an indispensable medium of communication. The purpose of this write up is to discuss the importance of ICT in Mass Communication. Let us begin with the definition of the terms.
According to Denis McQuail (2000), the term communication has many different meanings and definitions but the control idea is of a process of increased commonality or sharing between participants, on the basis of sending and receiving messages. Communication is the act of conveying information for the purpose of creating a shared understanding. It’s something that humans do every day ( ) . The word “communication” comes from the Latin “communis,” meaning “to share,” and includes verbal, non-verbal and electronic means of human interaction. Scholars who study communication analyze the development of communication skills in humans and theorize about how communication can be made more effective. The term mass describes a very large but amorphous set of individuals that engage in similar behavior, under external influence and are viewed by their would-be manipulators as having little or no separate identity, forms of organization or power, autonomy, integrity or self-determination (ibid). Many definitions of mass communication have been attempted. They range from simple “communication directed at the masses of people”, to more thorough and complex definitions such as Sydney Heads. He states: “Mass communication means the approximately simultaneous delivery of identical messages by high speed reproduction and distribution to relatively large and undifferentiated numbers of people”. Mass communication is the term used to describe the academic study of the various means by which individuals and entities relay information through mass media to large segments of the population at the same time. It is usually understood to relate to News paper and Magazine Publishing, Radio, Television, and Film as these are used both for disseminating news and for advertising.
Mass communication research includes media institutions and processes such as diffusion of information, and media effects such as persuasion or manipulation of public opinion. In addition to studying practical skills of journalism, public relations or advertising, they offer programs on "mass communication" or "mass communication research.
Information and Communications Technology or (ICT) on the other hand, is an umbrella term that includes all technologies for the manipulation and communication of information. Short for Information and Communications Technology, it is the study or business of developing and using technology to process information and aid communications
( term is sometimes used in preference to Information Technology (IT), particularly in two communities: education and government. In the common usage it is often assumed that ICT is synonymous with IT; ICT in fact encompasses any medium to record information (magnetic disk/tape, optical disks (CD/DVD), flash memory etc. and arguably also paper records); technology for broadcasting information - radio, television; and technology for communicating through voice and sound or images - microphone, camera, loudspeaker, telephone to cellular phones. It includes the wide variety of computing hardware (PCs, servers, mainframes, networked storage), the rapidly developing personal hardware market comprising mobile phones, personal devices, MP3 players, and much more; the full gamut of application software from the smallest home-developed spreadsheet to the largest enterprise packages and online software services; and the hardware and software needed to operate networks for transmission of information, again ranging from a home network to the largest global private networks operated by major commercial enterprises and, of course, the Internet.
One of the importance of ICT is that it has helped in the technological development of Mass Communication. With the increased role of the Internet in delivering news and information, mass communication studies and media organizations tend to focus on the convergence of, publishing, broadcasting and digital communication. The internet was created to provide easy access to much needed information, education and entertainment online. It provides less expensive option to these sources, because people can easily download an entire musical album from a website and use at a much lower fee. Also, introduction of this new technology has not only enhanced Mass Communication but also challenges the traditional concept of Mass Communication where according to the old definition, the source of Mass Communication message was defined as a large organization whose message is sent to a large heterogeneous scattered audience.
A case in point is electronic commerce on the internet which helps advertising agencies to advertise the products and services of their clients on the website which can easily be accessed by customers. Consumers are also able to shop on line at the comfort of their homes and offices which makes shopping easy.

Secondly, information technology has impacted positively on Advertising Agencies to increase productivity since they could easily access information on the customers of their clients through research on the internet, develop their advertisement and print hard copies of it, irrespective of the size of the copy. Likewise, public relations practitioners are able to easily analyse data collected from research on the internet and other sources and make it available to management.

Furthermore, media houses have also enhanced their performance with the use of information technology. They are able to gather more needed information and feed their audiences with current news and information through their website and other electronic media. They are also able to use the media to solicit views from their audiences on various issues. Similarly, press houses are able to plan the pages of their News papers and easily print the hard copies using this technology.

More so, the internet offers businesses information on the local and foreign stock market and the opportunity to trade their stocks. Financial institutions also make use of the information on the financial market to take decision. Government also uses information technology especially the internet to reach most of its publics. This helps to disseminate information on government policies and programmes. Political parties also make use of the internet and other electronic media to disseminate information on their selected candidates, party policies and programmes.
In spite of these benefits of ICT in Mass Communication, there are bad sides to it. The introduction of ICT, has rendered most communicators unemployed since their jobs can easily be done without them. Also, the inability to censor information on the internet or control certain information from reaching some vulnerable group of people in the society is a major concern to many people.

In conclusion, it can be realized that the development of Information and Communication Technology has impacted more positively on Mass Communication than negatively and so ICT plays an important role in Mass Communication.


Allen, R.R., Parish, S. & Mortensen, C.D. (1974). Communication : Interacting Through Speech. Charles E. Merill Publishing Co., A. Bell & Howell Company, Ohio.
McQuail, D. (2001). McQuail’s Mass Communication Theory. Sage Publication, Los Angeles